Caption: Thallus surface of the orange rock lichen / crustose lichen (Xanthomendoza fallax). The marginal (ruffled) edges contain the vegetative reproductive bodies called soralia. The granules that break away from the soralia (and disperse) contain fragments of fungus and some algal cells. These powdery grains are called soredia. Lichens are associations of fungi and algae. The fungi and algae grow with their tissues entwined. The fungi receive sugars and other carbon compounds from the algae photosynthesis. The fungi produce lichen acids that are a mixture of special chemicals that are thought to protect both fungi and algae from being eaten by predators. The algae and fungi form a mutualisitc or symbiotic relationship. Crustose lichens are slow growing and live to be very old. They colonize tree trunks, soil, and rock. Lichens are sensitive to sulphur dioxide and are used to monitor air pollution.
Magnification*: x40
Type: SEM
Copyright 2009 Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.
Keywords: lichen,bark,thallus,SEM,03.01.09,92730A,crustose lichen,orange tree lichen,tree lichen,Xanthomendoza fallax,algae,fungi,fungus,alga,hyphae,hypha,mutualistic,symbiotic,rock lichen,air pollution indicator,mutualism,symbiosis,symbiotic relationship,lichen photosynthesis,apothecia,apothecium,lichens,spore forming,spore forming bodies,spore forming structures,spore fruiting bodies,spore fruiting structures,fruiting bodies,fruiting structures,rock,spore bodies,spore structures,sulphur dioxide,rock crustose lichen,tree crustose lichen,lichen reproduction,spore,marginal edge,marginal edges,soralia,soralium,soredium,soredia