Caption: Kidney stone. Kidney stones are primarily formed by crystallization of the mineral salt calcium oxalate from the urine. They are irregular shaped stones called calculi (calculus) and are composed of random oriented columnar monoclinic crystals of calcium oxalate monohydrate with peripheral deposits of fine octahedral crystals of calcium oxalate dihydrate (seen here). Patches of microcyrstalline hydroxyl apatite fill internodal regions. Protein matrices can also be asscoiated with the microcrystalline arrays. The hard stones can cause severe pain as they pass down the ureter (urinary tract). Kidney stones may need to be removed surgically using ultrasound.
Magnification*: x100
Type: SEM
Copyright 2004 Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.
Keywords: 24007C,03.01.04,calcium oxalate dihydrate,calcium oxalate monohydrate,calculi,calculus,crystal,crystalline,crystals,human disease,human disorder,kidney stone,lithiasis,medical,mineral,octahedral crystal,renal system,ureter,uric acid,urinary tract,urine,SEM